Guilt/Innocence Or Shame/Honor

Just last week, a man here in the LA area who served 32 years in prison was released from custody because of a wrongful conviction. How will this man be perceived in society? The answer to that question can be easily determined by the kind of society from which he comes.

Anthropologists study humankind, including the way culture works. One such scientist, Franz Boas, and his student Ruth Benedict, first identified differences in cultural patterns, claiming that Eastern cultures follow an honor/shame arrangement and Western cultures, a guilt/innocence mode.

Benedict endorsed and popularized what some called “Boasian conceptual kernel” of US anthropology:

Human behavior is patterned. There exist within historically specific populations recurrences in both thought and behavior that are not contingent but structurally conditioned and that are, in turn, structuring.

Those patterns are learned. Recurrences cannot be tied to a natural world within or outside the human body, but rather to constant interaction within specific populations. Structuration occurs through social transmission and symbolic coding with some degree of human consciousness.

If I understand the first point correctly, the idea is that people groups behave and think in identifiably similar ways, because the people have been conditioned to do so. In turn they teach others to also be structured in the same way.

The structure of those in Eastern cultures is based on honor/shame, which largely identifies the way a culture “manages” its citizens. Individuals care a great deal about their standing in the community, so they don’t want to do something that would cost them respect or high standing.

What the community deems deplorable, then, takes presidency over individual desires or beliefs of right and wrong. I assume the community values are also somewhat fluid. If a society softens its position against a certain behavior, presumably an individual would no longer bear shame for engaging in it.

A guilt/innocence society follows a different paradigm. Rather than conforming to the community based on their praise or condemnation, a guilt/innocence outlook is more concerned about the individual’s adherence to law. The idea of innocent until proven guilty emphasizes the difference in the two approaches.

In the shame/honor culture, an accusation brings shame. In a guilt/innocence culture, an accusation needs to be proved.

A third cultural outlook is the fear/power model. Tribal cultures and totalitarian regimes and perhaps gangs operate on the fear of a group and their desire for power to counter it.

The general knowledge about these ways of grouping cultures, has simplified them as Eastern or Western. Little mention is made of fear/power, and Eastern cultures are believed to be shame/honor driven, while Western societies operate according to the guilt/innocence model.

One aspect of cultures adhering to the guilt/innocence model is that they are more concerned with the individual, whereas shame/honor groups care more for the community. As a result, some clear differences have emerged:

Individualistic cultures, primarily located in the West, appeal more to legal notions of right and wrong to govern social behavior. Morality is internalized, so people experience guilt for misdeeds. Guilty persons become innocent when they are forgiven or justice is served. (“Honor and Shame Societies,” the Zwemer Center)

Consequently, the man I mentioned at the outset, who was wrongly convicted of murder, has no shame because he spent half his life in prison. He was innocent.

What I find fascinating about the study of these cultural differences, is that I can see elements of both in the Bible. The Old Testament deals primarily with Hebrew culture, and there is much of the shame/honor culture apparent in the story of the Jewish nation, but at the same time God is the one who departs from the norm and tells the people that a man’s family is no longer to be considered guilty just because the man is guilty. In other words, no more guilt by association. A guilty person was to die for his own crimes, but his sons were to go free.

The New Testament with its teaching about sin and the forgiveness bought by the blood of Christ further built the guilt/innocence culture that took hold in the Greek and Roman societies where Paul ministered.

As I view Christianity, I see the perfect marriage of both shame/honor and guilt/innocence. What I don’t see is fear/power, unless it involves Satan and what he wants to accomplish.

All this to say, I wonder if through globalization and perhaps through the devaluation of Christianity, Western culture is sliding more and more into the shame/honor camp. I mean, all the politically correct approach to life is little more than putting pressure on an individual by the group to get people to conform to a societal norm, regardless of Law.

What’s particularly interesting is that bullying is taboo, but group bullying is the means by which we attempt to put an end to individual bullying.

In this climate, everyone is easily offended, every position expresses hate or abuse, no one is innocent any more as long as they hold beliefs that contradict the “group.” As yet, the “group” is not society at large, but certainly it’s growing in numbers.

As I see it, this kind of shame/honor approach is divorced from reality. Someone who gets away with a crime has no shame because he has not reflected badly on his community. Never mind that he might be hurting the less fortunate. Never mind that he makes his money on the backs of the weak.

The real problem with the shame/honor approach is the loss of the sense of personal sin. In light of the fact that Christianity alone offers mercy and forgiveness, I wonder if the concept of a Savior might be lost if our culture slides more and more toward shame/honor.

Of course, there is great emphasis in the Old Testament about God’s people upholding the honor of His name. One reason that God didn’t do away with the complaining people of Israel after the Exodus was precisely because of what the people around them would think about God. In fact, the point of a nation entering into a covenant relationship with God was to show the other nations the blessings God wanted to shower upon them as well.

Israel as a community was to be God’s ambassador to the world. Today we believers have that role. Individually, but collectively as the Church. We are to love one another in such a way that the world notices.

But we receive forgiveness for sins, not as a collective community, but as individuals, foreknown, predestined, called, justified, glorified by God because we as individuals believe that Jesus died for the sins of the world, that He was raised on the third day, that He is now at God’s right hand interceding for us.

Shame. Guilt. Fear. Jesus Christ dealt with all of it. He is the most cross-cultural person who ever lived. But that is what I’d expect from the Savior of the world. No wonder the gospel penetrates the Amazon jungle and the Russian steppes equally.


  1. Interesting stuff, Becky.

    I recently heard a couple of missionaries from the ME and they mentioned that very thing, that the shame/honor and fear/power aspects were so powerful and culturally ingrained. So when someone becomes a Christian the whole family has been so shamed and honor can often only be restored by having them declared mentally ill or by killing them.

    But they also pointed how much Christ is really at work there,appearing to people in dreams and visions. To accept Him is dangerous of course, but it’s also a real struggle emotionally and spiritually because His teachings run contrary to fear/power or shame/ honor. In Christianity, pride is a bad thing, humility is desired. In the ME, pride is a good thing and humility is dishonor. In Christianity, perfect love casts out fear, but in the ME, culture dictates that without fear there can be no honor.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Thanks for sharing what you learned from those missionaries, IB. I really understand in a different way the struggle for the gospel. For instance, I’ve wondered for the longest time why the work in Japan seems so . . . small. A lot of it has to do with this shaming aspect. I read a book by a M__lim born believer who shared how he came to Christ, and the last peace, after he was convinced in his heart and his head that the gospel is true, was risking the loss of relationship with his family. It’s a huge part of the decision because the shaming aspect is so painful.

      And to see that way of thinking begin to take hold in our culture is . . . disheartening. God can work, certainly, no matter what we people do. But it does seem to be a strategy of the enemy of our souls. Because if we don’t own personal sin, we don’t have the same recognition of our need for a Savior.


      Liked by 1 person

  2. This is good. My husband studied this and because he talked about it, I learned too. It is eye-opening, enlightening. The world is a much bigger place then our little corner. Thanks for sharing.


  3. I’ve been following this topic with great interest for a while now; enjoy postings found in a lot. There’s a little video presenting the Gospel in (central Asian) honor-shame terms and MANY articles on aspects. One I remember seemed to indicate the U.S. is heading more in “fame/shame” directions which seemed to lead to even more of the bullying you mentioned.
    There are a number of books on this topic which are currently helping fill up my Kindle! I can share them, if you wish.
    All the best, Kathy Eavenson

    Liked by 1 person

    • “Fame/shame!” Yes, that’s a good describer! Glad to know others see the shift too. Yes, I’d be interested in the titles you think are best, Kathy.



      • OK, here goes!
        1 “THE 3D Gospel: Ministry in Guilt, Shame, and Fear Cultures” by Jayson Georges;
        2 “Ministering in Honor-Shame Cultures” by Jayson Georges & Mark Baker;
        3 “Crossing Cultures in Scripture: Biblical Principles for Mission Practice” by Marvin Newell;
        4 “Misreading Scripture With Western Eyes” by E. Randolph Richards & Brandon O’Brien.
        Some of these are on current cultures; some cover understanding the honor-shame elements of the ancient Biblical cultures (that we Westerners so easily miss OR dismiss!)
        Richards & O’Brien have a new one on Paul, his ministry in relation to his culture(s) that I found informational and amusing at times: “Paul Behaving Badly: Was the Apostle a Racist, Chauvinist Jerk?” As I’m sure you’re aware the Apostle has been accused of all these and much more recently. 😉
        Kathy Eavenson

        Liked by 1 person

        • Poor Paul. He really has been accused of all sorts of wrongdoing. He’s maligned as much as Jesus, I think.

          Thanks for the book list, Kathy. I really appreciate it. Now, to track down some of those titles. 😉



          • Let me know what you think, if you do get some. They’re all on Kindle I know for sure! K


  4. Very informative and well crafted…
    You’ve given me a whole new angle to ponder over because I hail from a honor shame culture and beginning to transform religiously into this mode of innocence guilt because it seems much logical…


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